Self-defense training with the Danish FMA and Self-defense Grp video
Self-defense training with the Danish FMA and Self-defense Grp video
I hope ya’ll are doing well. It’s time for more ranting and terminology. Before that, I’d like to remind you that we are open for new members now. You can see the guys who were at training the other day in the picture. So write to us so we can plan a training session with our club.
Now to the subject at hand. When we do drills, they are usually some counter attacks and other mixes of techniques that are related or put together for other reasons. One might be to learn how to hit with control when starting the first 2 stick drill. Most people need some time to feel that they have control of the left handed strike. I’ll put a video below to show what I mean. Drills can be put together to get use the stress level, so the students can focus on improving something like the timing of the strike and foot work with the left hand… if we stick with the given example above!
All drills are not fight training! I repeat, ALL DRILLS ARE NOT FIGHT TRAINING! If I was going to do a crash course for military, CPO ( VIP protection) etc, Then most drills would be fight training. When we teach people in a club setting, then we are looking at developing skills that we don’t have time to improve with the crash course. At least with most people, there will always be the élite learners.
Not only that, but a given drill at a beginner level would not look like the same drill for an intermediate level student or advanced level student. We post a lot of videos compared to other FMA clubs, but we don’t post everything! We have the training, we show the world via videos and we have the next level of understanding that doesn’t end up on video.
As the guys start to develop skills we turn up the stress level via different tools. this could be more honest attacks from the BG ( bad guy ), it could be via more attackers, noise, catastrophe position, other starting weapon positions, and much more.
Once a student has learned to understand the distance of a stab ( using the low counter strike to the attacking weapon hand) then he / she can go on to doing a #2 strike to the head and moving more offline, or even preempting with online footwork. Then when the live hand has been developed to a given level, we can add the live hand control to the same attack when the BG stabs low. Hopefully you see where we are going.
We can look at a drill as a stick drill or we can look at it as a bladed drill. Blades always command more respect. People can be and often are more brave when attacked by an attacker wielding a blunt weapon. Just by changing the attackers weapon, we start all over again with building the confidence of the student and thereby their ability to do more than just a basic drill. They can start more true to life fight drills. This is why people look differently when the fight really starts.
You’ll hear me yelling yes!, even though a student has reacted outside the drill parameters at times. That is because they have taken a simple drill for skills sake and started to adapt it to real fight / self-defense situations.
I hope you don’t really think the FMA videos showing a long series of counter strikes is supposed to be what it looks like when we use our training in real life ( if we are so unlucky that we have to )
You will hear GM Rene talk about keeping to the basics and those of us who have learned from him, will most likely always have our student look at the basic concepts as they progress. Are they maintaining balance as they learn new skills and learn to function under more and more pressure? Do they still command control of timing and distance when they add 2 sticks to a list of t he tools they can use? Can that take that same cross strike with the stick and transfer the same power to the use of the live hand while they attack to the head when the attacker stabs ?
In short, the many drills for developing the skills of a warrior are not the same skills and drills that would be used to develop a soldier in a short amount of time. There are going to be extra drills and possibly slower paths of learning. And later on the ability to ascend to a higher level of understanding and skill will/can be the result. (Given the fact that the student is ready for the learning curve and more). The funny thing is things get easier later on when we take our time in the beginning! In other words the second 2 stick grade for the guys will be easier because we spent the time on the second single stick grade.
I could write about this subject for along time. There are so many combinations of timing, distance and more that it could be a book. But my old fingers are getting tired and the sun is shinning. AND it’s Friday!
Do some training this weekend and make sure you spend some time with your family. enjoy their company and remember what you do have in your life.
Stay Proactive in Life and Training
What the heck is it? Regardless of what you train, you will see people doing something that “belongs to another system.” Sorry folks if you thought what you did belonged to your system and that system alone!
Let’s start with the idea of FMA. If we were to say traditional Filipino Martial Arts, we would have to decide at what year we started saying things were not real FMA. Espada y daga comes from Spain … or does it? Are we going to include the mostly muslim arts such as Silat? Are we going to include the arts from one island and not another? Are we going to include the variations that you might see because some one is big and strong as compared to a 5ft islander?
You see where I am going. It gets complicated. We’ll start with Karate and the systems that look/move some what like karate. The Japanese got around and the fact that ww2 helped to popularise Japanese arts such as judo made it easier to become popular on the Filipine islands. Hollywood jumped on the band wagon and there was no looking back. The hard way many karate styles moves, can be seen in many movies. Looking at the softer and more dynamic kung fu styles tv shows and the expectation of that art even more. It’s kinda like assumed fighting style differences in two hand european sword fight and short sword fighting. They are at two ends of the spectrum…. and the same thing in some ways.
When we look at the many arts of the Filipinos arts today. You will see the same differences. But which one is more FMA true? Is Balintawak or Silat the correct FMA version? All this is what makes FMA so great. A person can train a hard powerful style for a while and then train a more fluid style. That person could learn from a Lago Mano specialist and then learn from a Sarrada instructor.
Lets make it even more confusing. Lets say that the person above get’s into GM Latosa style more. Many of the people in Europe find that his way of training FMA fits them better. I am one. My instructor of many years, Lars Lind learned from GM Rene Latosa for many years. We trained hard hits first. The fancy stuff came later because we trained with sticks to start with. I found that a combination of GM Latosa’s style and the style I trained under Master Lind fit me best. Another person who trained a lot of Wing Tsun would add influences from WT.
Now let’s look at what happens when you reach a certain level of understanding of the fighting arts. Regardless of the system, many truths hold true. A wrist lock / disarm may look a little different, because one system derives it grounding concepts from weapons and the other from pure unarmed vs. unarmed fights. Systems like Krav Maga which are popular at the moment because it’s the latest trend, tend to pick up techniques and concepts from other fighting arts. An example is how a system consisting of a few techniques trained in many situations grew to have flying circular kicks and more.
What we do in Latosa Concepts is based largely on weapons fighting with power and balance as the first lessons and concepts like transition are later subjects. We deviate from the core of the system as we learn more and develop more “tools” such as hard passing, jamming and soft passing. Characteristic elements of fma such as “defanging the snake” and live / life hand use are developed as the person learns more about speed, timing and distance.
When I started Escrima under Latosa’s European head Master Bill and the Danish head Master Lind, the unarmed training was kept to a minimum in the beginning because there was a partnership between the WT organisation and GM Latosa. Today we train palm stick and unarmed as well as stick training from the very first day. Politics don’t get in the way any more. But, which form is more FMA in it’s style? The one without the unarmed or the one with the unarmed training.
Once again the waters are becoming murky!
The short answer to what it is: it defends on your understanding of martial arts, the concepts that drive what you know, the philosophies that are involved and at what level the person performing the art is at. Let’s add a few more factors like instructor experience, the ability of the student to perform the given art as it was meant to be done ( or as we think it was meant to be done), and many other.
As I get older I use softer techniques in the place of hard techniques. Passing takes the place of jamming ( you see jamming a lot in krav maga). Reading attacks and what happening takes the place of preempting and I become a nicer person in general. 😉 I am moving from a hard FMA style to a softer more fluid one. Which one is more FMA authentic? Is it less authentic because you are young and hard or is it more authentic because you are older, more apt to injury and smarter?
I have not gotten into the general differences in escrima / eskrima , kali, arnis, silat, and so on because this blog post would go on forever. The words are interchangeable in some cases and very telling of the art in other cases. I will mess with your brain a little though! Is the feminine V footwork the same as sprawling in anti-grapling (mma)? If you think about it, there is not much of a skip and hop from one technique to the next when we think in concepts and the reasons for each technique. What drives the actions?
I don’t want to jinks it, but it looks like we might have a new place to train. keep your fingers crossed. If it happens we’ll be open for more members. I am looking forward to seeing more people train FMA in Denmark. Check out the club blog here.
Stay Proactive in Life and Training
Well, we did it. We finished the bylaws for the ( ” forening vedtægter ” ) Danish FMA and Self-Defense Group. We had our meeting and worked out who would be filling which board position and so on. Our little band of friends is now looking for better training facilities, aka a club house or gym to train in and store training equipment. We will be excepting members very soon.
The list of chores is longish but we’ll get there. One such “thing to do” will be a site / web page for the Danish FMA and Self-defence Grp. We’ll see if we use a Facebook page or a WordPress.com page. Regarding the hunt for a place to train and store equipment, we have a pdf flyer. So download it here and send it around to any possible places. This could be a company that has extra warehouse space, and extra office space that is big enough and so on. The city of Gentofte doesn’t want to give us any place to train because we are a bunch of old farts, not young whipper snapper kids! Other sports clubs that have some extra space and any other type of place that we could train and store our equipment in is also welcome.
Membership will be 1050 pr. 3 months, or 400 kr pr single month. There will be the possibility to support our group with a passive membership of 150 kr. pr month. That option will also work for the members who go on a long vacation or what ever it might be. We’ll be getting a bank account very soon for this reason.
The syllabus taught will be the Latosa Concepts Escrima Syllabus MA and I put together, when I had the company a few years back. In short:
Members are ready for a grading test when the instructor says they are ready. How long that takes is up to the member / student. Coming from another system will mean that you have to learn the drills and abilities that match that grade for Latosa Concepts Escrima. This could mean a new member ( w/ a 3rd gr. from another system) has to learn the basic box system as taught by GM Rene Latosa for the 3rd gr. before testing for the 4th. AND all the other stuff leading up to it! “This old fart” plans on continuing to train and build up the abilities I had before my shoulder / collar bone injury. I repeat no short cuts! Only quality!
We need to put our heads together to have some kind of kick off soon. We’ll let you know when we are ready. Until then, heres some of what NH and I did together the other day. This is passing level for the two drills shown ( for the 4th grade) The 2 stick drill is a variation of the HIGH, HIGH, LOW drill. The single stick drill was for training good solid # 2 strikes against harder strikes. In short … reality. When the other drills look just as good and We feel they are burned into his bones, he may test for the 4th Latosa Concepts Escrima gr.
By the way, we were using some heavy rattans. NH’s arms were long and tired when we were finished training. You might say it was a weight lifting session for him. Well done sir! I am looking forward to seeing the other drills go as well. We’ll try to get some clips from the guys training for the 2nd grade next.
Ya’ll have a great day!
Stay Proactive in Life and Training
I was training with J the other day and working on / refreshing some of my tools / abilities while he was working on some new tools. That’s going to be the starting point for this posts. Where it goes from there … who knows!
Before that, I like to ask you if you … if you have done anything for your general mobility, strength and conditioning? I’ll tell you what I did today after sleeping late. Had some coffee and coconut milk, kisses a purity lady then worked out. It was a pull day. That ment deadlifts, bend over row with a rotation, 2 core exercises, a calf exercise and lat pulls. Get off your butt tomorrow morning and do something.
Getting back to what we worked on when we were training. Timing is a strange thing if you don’t understand the doors it open for you. When you do, it’s just fun. To refresh, the basic timing variations are: preempting, same time variations, and late timing. When we start to mix the timing variations in an attack sequence we get things like half beat attacks. These can be joint locks, takedowns, strikes, stabs , cuts and more. I did a leg sweep and took J’s second stick from him at one time. Of course, I had one stick at the time.
Any Hoo! At some point in time, I felt the urge to start using my second stick to stab with ( espada y daga style. ) J’s first response was to say … what was that? Jokingly I told him is was an old man cheating! On a serious note, J noticed that it was harder to see, ergo he was caught off guard by it ever time. That’s very true! Stabs are harder to read when we look at the ability to read attacks (baring the ability to read the attackers body movement.) Just the fact that the tip of the weapon may be all you see is enough to scare people. Add to that the fact that a stab with a knife goes deep without much force and you get a new respect. This is one reason that GM Rene Latosa talks a lot about zones and students of his, like myself preach about zones of attack from every mountain we find. It was the same, when I was with Master Lind at WCS. Regardless of what we doing the most effective way to protect your self is to look at attack zones. This could be with the array of FMA weapons / tools, it could be true of the general British type of sword training (sword and buckler is great fun!), and it could be true of the German type sword training.
Back to the order of learning. When we start with the figure-8 system of basic blunt weapon strikes, we learn about reading what the attacker / assailant is attacking us with. With time we learn to read the attacker and move from same time strikes to preemptive strike. Once that ability is bettered to a suitable point, we can start learning to read the stabs. This means we start to understand that stab can stop and start in the same little bitty segment of space and still be just as dangerous. It’s all about taking baby steps before we walk then run.
You might be thinking that the old man has forgotten about the half beat! He’s gotta be getting old. Nope, I’m not that far gone yet! As we progress from same time strikes, we learn to step on the gas with an extra strike between the beat. Stabs or #5 strikes are an easy way to do that. With time, we can learn to act and react on one third beats, one quarter beats and so on. It’s all about the flow drills and the speed that are performed to build this ability. This gets back to my last post about flow and so on. Flow is a tool, to learn about and better, your half beat strikes and more.
All this gets into energy and short power and everything starts to interlock, intersect and become universal when we look at FMA and GM Latosa teachings. I’ll let you think about that one for a while. Can you say nexus? We’ll call it the LC Nexus just for kicks! Remember learning to do is becoming aware of what you have learned to do! In this case, learning to use the #5 is learning to be aware of that same attack if an attacker uses it on you.
That’s it, the red meat and green stuff I ate after training is almost gone. It’s time for some more food!
Make sure you see where GM Rene will be teaching while on his travels.
Stay proactive and enjoy life!
I hope ya’ll are doing well. This is going to be a bit of a rant or me just bitc….g about a subject and some thoughts on the subject.
It’s no secret that I am training my self up again after a nasty collar bone injury. This goes for normal strength and conditioning and LC Escrima training. Speaking of which, thanks for a cool training session at the beach yesterday Niklas! This old fart could feel it afterwards. I’m glad that I stayed at the beach to just lay around for a while. I’m looking forward to next time we train together.
Any Hoo! Back to the subject. Some of us were training at the beach and doing our best to not feel the heat. It was a hot day! For myself, I was doing my best to not feel my hectic schedule and the lack of sleep. In short “old fart stuff”! I felt all the 8,10,& 20 kg boxes I lift all day long. 😉 The inspiration for this blog entry came from the fact that there was a group training at the beach not far away, and the instructor and 2 group members seem to really not understand the idea of personal space when walking by. Some would call it just stupid where I come from in Texas and in some circles here in DK. Provoking people training escrima is just silly! Add to that they did it twice just to prove a point….?
Any Hoo!! Back to the subject. Personal space is different everywhere in the world. In crowded country/cities, where there is a true mix of poor and other economic groups, like some Philippine cities, you will find people walking up against you without thinking about it. The New York streets could be another example of many people packed together in a small space. Here in DK, there is an odd mix of an understanding of personal space and a general respect, and there is a blatant habit of just doing something like walking too close when there is A LOT of space all around. It’s something you expect from teenage boys learning to find boundaries not instructors with a t-shirt proclaiming instructor for a club in Hellerup / Copenhagen. You see it also in young children of 1-5 years old because they are so focused on an end goal ( or something they saw) that they forget the world around them. Think of a 3 yr. old at the beach with his/her bucket and shovel and they have to dig right there beside you because they saw something in the sand. You smile and giggle at it when there is no expectation of normal social codes and more. It’s cute in many ways. And yes, I wrote cute. Blackmail me. 😉
It does not belong in the realm of instructors of crossfit! (hint), personal trainers!, self-defense trainers! and other coaches or teachers! There is supposed to be an understanding of respect for personal space! This understanding of respect for others personal space transcends other subjects like other people’s feeling as well as their opinions. As a personal trainer/ instructor, you have to understand the type of person you are working with. Once again, another reason, that I had a hard time not just getting down right angry at the lack of respect the instructor showed. Many of the people ( in the area ) who were curious asked if they could sit down close by and watch or just showed some respect and walked around…. leaving a decent amount of space between them self and us. There are always dumb teenage boy trying to prove something and provoke a response, but they don’t have a t-shirt on declaring “instructor……” and they are not responsible for a group. They are not paid to lead!
You could say that it was not worth getting worked up about. Forget it and move on. We have to remember, that instructors set a tone for the group in which they are a members of or teach in. It’s the same for higher grades in martial arts. This is getting back to the big brother / little brother idea. Sociologist have performed studies on behaviour in groups. It’s common knowledge that one person cheating seems to open the flood gate for the next few then the whole group. There is a cool video on the subject. The speaker uses the expression…. fudge factor. If someone, like an instructor, does not respect one groups personal space then the people he is teaching tend let themselves invade other people space. There were many families and groups at the beach who experience the same thing we did. This will not end here, btw. I am just cooling down before I talk with the local club responsible.
When I was running around in clubs in Texas, chasing women and dancing, there were places, where almost everyone was nice, because anyone was ready to fight for keeps, if pushed to far. A fight could get real ugly really fast! The very unprofessional instructors and his two groupies would not last long where I come from. Then we could look at the totally unprofessional behaviour of the person and the implications down the line….. economic, and moral. I can tell you there are several people at the beach that day who will never get close to the club in question.
One reason this angers me so, is because, I take teaching very seriously. Instructors are guides in life in many ways. That’s why I like to be called coach. A coach sets an example while trying to give to those willing to listen. Yet another reason I like instructors like R. Latosa & Martin Rooney. One of the reason I took the job of training the ice skaters, was that I like to see the development of young people to a type of person with a life code not to mention the development of tools and abilities that might make them an olympic athlete. When I say/write life code, I am referring to a way of treating others as you would like to be treated, a way of living up to a higher moral way of treating others, & living as well as showing respect for one self.
Good instructors / coaches and other teaching professionals try to understand the people they train / coach so that they can help them as much as possible. They want to inspire not lead people down the wrong path of blatant disrespect. This leads to the student not respecting themselves in the end and the cycle starts all over again.
To see a Ted Talk video about the “fudge factor” click here. It’s really cool.The Ted Site has a better video format. That was my rant! The next blog post will be about Latosa Concepts Escrima training. We might even put some video up.
BTW, excuse the spelling and grammar mistakes. There might be a few more than usual.
Stay Proactive in Life and Training.
I hope ya’ll are doing well. This will be an escrima terminology post about a subject that popped up because of some old video I put up here on the blog in the last last blog post.
Before I get into that, I just got back from the Copenhagen Middle Age Market. My son and I made an outing of it. It does the soul good to get out and bond with your son. Get off the sofa right this moment, if you haven’t done it in a while! We both have the same interest. Knowing some of the people, who are doing the Battle of Nations style fighting and some other sword training styles made for a good start. I was lucky enough to see a whole mess of old friends, students, training partners and and even my earlier instructor, Lars Lind. My son and I even got a drinking horn from the trip. AAARG! ARRRG!
Any Hoo! Back to the real subject at hand. As I wrote, the free sparring video of the guys in our training group is the reason for this blog entry. In one of the videos you hear me saying that movement is king.
Do I mean people should hop around like Muhammad Ali in his early years? The answer is a resounding …NO! We are not bunny rabbits! A good way to understand what movement does is when cars start a race from a rolling start. This rolling start does not have to be that exaggerated or extreme. In fact, in our case, it can be totally mental or just the slightest movement in how tight your fist is clinched. The idea is not to stagnate or fall into a moment of unawareness. A moment of unawareness is just as much of an opening/window of attack as an arm that falls.
Another aspect of this movement is that it can put you at a distance that allows a short moment of less attention. In our training group, we like to press in & fly out while attacking a target such as an arm after a combination / attack sequence is done. As long as we are in close, we have to be hyper vigilant and aware of dangers. Now that my arm is doing better and I am training with the group again, I do enjoy my little breaks. Old farts need to breath and keep the distance more often than the young men. 😉
We hear that our concentration span is shorter today. Having a well developed concentration span is very good in a self-defense / sparring session and every day life. When the body becomes tired the mind want to take little breaks as well. It takes discipline to not give way to this urge when sparring and / or defending our selves. Forcing ourselves to move little parts of our body or weapon help to avoid mental stagnation and a head ache or worse!
Any Hoo! Movement is king is not jumping around like a hyper active bunny! It’s all about keeping the mental and physical energy going so we can act and react when we need to.
I’ll be updating the new site for the personal training and group strength and conditioning classes that I offer now. Go to www.HardcoreFunctional.me to see what is happening there. I’ll be reposting some of the strength and conditioning post from this blog as well as touching on some new subjects in health, wellness and training.
I hope all you tough guys enjoy the bunny video! 😉 He he he! Now go to the http://www.KMM.dk.
Stay Proactive in Life and Training
The title of this blog entry says it all. I think more fma’ers should be doing indian club and clubbell training and the like. One reason is mobility and another is flow and coordination. And let’s not forget the stability and strength aspect of it, when we start working with heavier weights. This also gets into the mace ball you see in the second video. As I have written before on how we need to do physical fitness training to counter the extreme volume, we build up in some movement patterns. An overload of volume in a few movement patterns can easily be a recipe for injuries.
looking at the flow shown in the indian club video, it’s easy to to how we can build up more coordination and fluid movements. Getting back to balance, hard and strong movements need to be balanced with fluid movements to counter the extreme volume that can be built up. There’s the aspect of working with fluid movements as well. We’ll save that for another day.
For the nerdy people there are subjects like the nexus of strength and range of motion we could get into. This subject is something for the long-term projects.
I have started to add more functional training in small portions. My shoulder is holding and still getting better. The natural progression will be to try more mobility based drills with light weights. I can imagine there are a lot of you who need the same. If you are in the same boat as me (collar bone injury) take it slowly. I have some wood picked out to make some indian clubs from. Getting back to the kid looking into the candy store. There’s nothing like making tools and then using them.
Any Hoo! I hope ya’ll enjoy. You gotta love the music in the first video as well. The second is well worth the time also.
Stay Proactive in Life and Training
I did it! I found some old dvd’s with demo’s and other stuff on them. There were some with other instructors. I’ll try to get a hold of them to make sure it’s OK to post a video with them. Until then I have posted a demo we did for a shoot fighting tournament around 10 years ago (?) There is another music track added to it because I knew YouTube would ban it due to music infringements. That means no cracking sounds from the hickory sticks striking. Sorry about that.
I am still looking for the GM Rene clips I have somewhere. We’ll se if those are the next videos posted. For those of you who notice little details you will see that we have different logo’s on. There is a bit of history there.
When GM Rene stopped working with the Germans, Master Bill stayed with the German org. Steve Tappin and the Scandinavian org. went it’s own way. That is the logo you can see on the tee shirts. Just to finish the story, politics and ego’s got in the way again and there was another split. The Scandinavian org and Tappin stopped working together. That is where Weapons Combat System came into the picture.
After 15+ years of politics I finally came home to where I belong by following the teachings of GM Rene Latosa again. Now I just want to train, teach a little and hopefully get to the states from time to time to get more feed back from GM Rene. OOH and post a few old videos from time to time. What can I say, I must be getting old.
Any HOO! Here’s the video. I’m just tired of all the heavy metal music with the videos right now. Live with it.
Be Proactive in Training and Life
I receive several newsletters from tactical training groups. In one of them there was a short article about the above mentioned subject. This is a subject that is a virtual minefield because of the different views, philosophies and social standards.
We can start by looking at the thugs on the street that don’t share a common persons perspective on conflicts. If we divide a conflict into 5 levels, we can see how slowly we progress from level 1 (being a low level verbal conflict) to level 5 (being the extreme in a physical conflict). For most people “the most serious” is no where close to my perspective or perhaps another person’s perspective of a level 5 threat. A typical example is how seriously it is taken when a 17 year old person tries to stab or actually stabs another person. Stabbing a person repeatedly, or attempting to, is a level 5 threat in my book. It is often looked upon with a lack of seriousness. The Danish law says the defending person is allowed to use equal force to defend them self. The Danish social standard says something else completely. I’ve heard the expression, “you are built kinda big aren’t you?” and “you have training don’t you?” Size can save you in some cases when being stabbed in certain places on the body but you have to be big and lucky. The guiding perception is training and size some how changes the knife to a rubber training knife. There is a false perception regarding what people see on TV and in the movies. Another problem is what some call “equalisers,” or threat amplifiers They can be used by the assaulting person or the defending person. Common equalizers can be: guns, knives, blunt weapons, bottles, etc. The list goes on, equalizers can also be 3 other gang members that don’t have your best wishes in mind. Now add equalizers and the ability to jump straight to level 5 aggressiveness, then serious problem arises. The next factor is experience with such situations. Hooligans are good at functioning during such situations because of sheer experience. It has been their teacher. They know how normal people react to the threat they pose. What kind of experience does a normal person have ? The answer is … most don’t have much! Even people who have fought in tournaments are behind the game. They are trained for a sport arena, a different world completely. An example could be a total surprise regarding your own reaction to the adrenaline dump that takes place. How many people train to cope with an adrenaline dump in a real life assault? Being hit worsens the effect with confusion and pain. Having your family close by causes all sorts of conflicts in the decision making process. The last part of the equation, we are looking at, is the human body. How do we best physically prepare ourselves for and assault? The human body can take enormous amounts of punishment and a moment later be damaged with the least amount of pressure. Shear dumb luck plays a role too. How does one best prepare for a potential assault?
There are other things we can do but you get the general idea.
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